AKL-201511 AviaCollection / AviaKollektsia series 11/2015: Ilyushin Il-14 Soviet transport aircraft. Photos, schemes, colour pictures. 32 pages, soft cover, text in Russian.

CREATING A PLANE
In 1949, the assembly shop of the Moscow Aviation Plant No. 30 (later called Znamya Truda, then the Voronin Production Association and, finally, RSK MiG) left the last Il-12 aircraft. This machine, created immediately after the war and intended to replace the Li-2, did not live up to the hopes placed on it. Flight data of production vehicles of this type only approached the American C-47. Therefore, in the Soviet Union, some of the more reliable cargo "Americans" received under the Lend-Lease were converted into passenger aircraft and used for flights abroad, while the Il-12 was operated mainly in the Armed Forces and on the internal lines of the Civil Air Fleet.
The Il-12 still had two advantages over the S-47 - a large payload and a chassis with a bow support. But the reliability and efficiency of this aircraft, mainly due to the design and production defects of the power plants, left much to be desired. This led to the appearance of the IL-14.
But before proceeding to the story about this machine, I note that three projects were hidden under the designation IL-14.
The first of them was a bomber designed during the war, then the Il-12 variant with ASh-73 engines (instead of ASh-82FN).
Only the third was brought to life - the project of a passenger aircraft with ASh-82T engines (1900 hp), which was essentially a deep modification of the Il-12.
A prototype of the 18-seat Il-14 was built in 1950 in accordance with a government decree of June 10 of the same year, but the absence of ASh-82T engines delayed the start of flight tests. According to the assignment, on the new machine, it was required to eliminate the flaws of the Il-12, identified on production copies, improve aerodynamics and install engines that guarantee flight safety on one engine.
The main external differences from its predecessor were the nacelles with new exhaust pipes. The rest of the Il-14 initially did not differ from the Il-12. It retained the old wing, empennage and power plant with ASh-82FN engines. All new items related to individual systems were hidden under the skin.
Since the new aircraft, like the Il-12, was designed for 18 passengers (three seats in a row: on the left side are paired, on the right side - single), then, by modern standards, based on the pitch of the seats, the passenger compartment can be safely attributed to the first class.
The first flight of the IL-14 prototype, piloted by the crew of V.K. Kokkinaki, took place on July 13, 1950. However, it turned out to be shorter than planned. After 15 minutes, the plane made an emergency landing due to high temperatures in the heat exchangers (gas-air coolers) of the anti-icing system. Therefore, on the second prototype of the Il-14, it had to be redone.
During the tests of the first sample of the aircraft, the engines were replaced with ASh-82T with steel crankcases, and then - with motors with aluminum crankcases. Factory tests of the IL-14 with a new power plant began on September 20 and lasted until October 31, 1950.
While the first sample was being tested, a second prototype was built, which received the designation Il-14P. Its first flight took place on October 1, 1950. Since during the tests of the first prototype, an insufficient travel stability margin at low speeds was revealed (this was especially felt during takeoff with one failed engine), the vertical tail had to be redone on the second prototype. First, the keel area was increased by 15.47%, and then in January 1951 the rudder was modified, the area of which increased by 1.53%. In addition, a spring trimmer was installed on the steering wheel, which reduced the effort on the pedals if one of the motors failed.
The essential external difference between the IL-14P and the first copy was the vertical tail and the wing. They changed not only the shape of the latter in terms of the plan, but also the profile - to a modified CP-5. On the first copy of the IL-14, the angle of the transverse V of the bearing surface was 4 °, and on the second (at the detachable parts) - 3.5 °.
At the same time, the decreased lateral stability margin was compensated for by more effective ailerons.
At the final stage of factory tests, V.K. Kokkinaki for the first time in our country performed takeoff on the Il-14P with one engine off. The recommendations developed by him were subsequently included in the aircraft flight manual.
But, as usual, at the stage of factory tests, a number of defects were revealed, the elimination of which was delayed until the spring of next year.
In early February 1951 S.V. Ilyushin in a letter sent to the Minister of War A.M. Vasilevsky, Minister of Aviation Industry M.V. Khrunichev, Air Force Commander P.F. Zhigarev and the head of the Main Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet S.F. Zhavoronkov, reported:
“On March 1, 1951, the Il-14-2ASh-82T passenger aircraft (modernization of the Il-12) will be presented for state tests.
The aircraft should be subjected to state tests not only for the removal of flight characteristics (as was the case in practice), but it should be tested, mainly as a regular aircraft in scheduled flights on the most difficult air route Moscow - Khabarovsk - Moscow.

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AKL-201511 AviaKollektsia 11 2015: Ilyushin Il-14 Soviet transport aircraft

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