AKL-201507 AviaCollection / AviaKollektsia series 07/2015: Kamov Ka-29 transport and combat helicopter. Photos, schemes, colour pictures. 32 pages, soft cover, text in Russian.

BUILDING A HELICOPTER
In the early 1970s in the USSR, they began to resolve the issue of expanding the combat capabilities of the marines, associated, first of all, with its transportation from ships to coastal territories, as well as with an increase in the effectiveness of fire support and cover during landing. Along with the improvement of amphibious ships and watercraft, large-scale work was launched on the means of delivering personnel by air. For these purposes, it was supposed to use helicopters. This choice was due not only to an attempt to use the achievements of aviation progress, but also to an analysis of local wars and conflicts, primarily those in which developed countries of the world used naval aviation and forces similar in purpose to the Soviet marines.
Compared to other delivery vehicles - large amphibious assault ships, amphibious vehicles, boats and boats, the helicopter made it possible to transfer personnel and the necessary equipment at a much higher speed, and without the need to "swing on the waves" with all the ensuing consequences. In addition, the rotorcraft did not depend on the terrain and bottom structure in the landing area, which imposed significant restrictions on the use of ships, amphibious vehicles and the other watercraft.
The helicopter was supposed to be a transport-combat helicopter - the vehicle could provide direct fire support to the landed fighters, and exactly in accordance with the situation on the spot.
At the same time, the helicopter being developed, given its size, was not capable of airlifting either heavy weapons or military equipment, which sharply reduced the combat power of the landing force, which actually turned into the landing of reconnaissance and sabotage groups. But the task of mass airborne landing using rotary-wing aircraft in this case was not posed (you can imagine how many of them would be required!) The main tasks of a promising helicopter were reduced to airborne and fire support of units allocated to capture bridgeheads and important objects of enemy coastal defense, which should have been ensure the successful landing of the main forces from the sea. In addition, he was assigned the task of destroying surface targets, including armored ones. Also, the aircraft could be engaged in the evacuation of the wounded,
According to the views on the conduct of amphibious operations that existed in the early 1970s, during the first stage, an advanced detachment (a reinforced marine brigade) landed from the assault ships and air cushion boats, which was to capture and hold the bridgehead. It was in this that the transport and combat helicopters were to participate.
Six hours later, the main forces joined - a motorized rifle division, which was landed from medium landing ships and first-echelon transport ships. Then the raid unloading of transports began, delivering the second echelon of troops, heavy weapons and rear services.
The new helicopter was prescribed to be able to be based on ships of various classes, which was reflected in the requirements for its design - for example, it was necessary to have folding rotor propellers. It provided for pylons for the suspension of weapons. The helicopter was also supposed to provide fire support for the landing force day and night, in simple and difficult weather conditions.
After analyzing the technical and design potential, developments and experience in the field of creating ship-based helicopter technology, the choice fell on the design bureau of N.I. Kamov, who by that time already had a successfully operated ship-borne Ka-25 helicopter to its credit and was in full swing working on a new machine, which was later designated the Ka-27. On the basis of the latter, we decided to develop a transport-combat helicopter.
Work on its creation began in the Kamov design bureau in 1973, headed by Deputy Chief Designer S.N. Fomin. Leading designer G.M. Danilochkin. The general management of the program was carried out by the chief designer S.V. Mikheev. The military called the vehicle the Ka-252TB, and in the design bureau it was designated the Ka-27TB, or "product D2B".
On the new helicopter, in comparison with the Ka-27, the nose of the fuselage was redesigned - flat rather than convex cockpit glasses were introduced, which somewhat worsened aerodynamics, and it became 50 cm wider due to additional booking. At the bottom, in front, they placed television and infrared equipment and a special antenna for controlling the "Shturm-V" ATGM. On the left side of the fuselage, a 30-mm 2A42 cannon with 250 rounds of ammunition was installed. In the bow, behind the flap, in a specially designed NUV-1UM installation, a GShG-7.62 machine gun was mounted, which had four rotating barrels; its ammunition was 1800 rounds. The transported troops could also fire from machine guns, installed, if necessary, in the openings of the front door and emergency exit. For aiming when firing a cannon, the helicopter commander had an ASP-17VK collimator sight, coupled with a laser rangefinder. And the navigator had a K-1 OT sight (also a collimator) for firing a machine gun and an SUV-252 system for using ATGMs. Considering that the helicopter was supposed to fly from ships generating a powerful electromagnetic field, its developers took additional measures to prevent the spontaneous operation of elements of the weapon system.
To protect against missiles with thermal homing, screen-exhaust devices were introduced on the Ka-29. The helicopter also had the famous Lipa jamming station (a powerful xenon rotating lamp) and an automatic jamming device APP-50.
Instead of the sliding doors used to enter the crew on the Ka-27, the Ka-29 received only sliding windows, which was due to the additional armor of the nose of the fuselage. Now the crew got to their workplaces through the door on the starboard side; if it was open, then the navigator's sliding window did not open completely. Also, the engines and the main gearbox have undergone additional armor. Inside the fuselage, a cargo compartment was equipped with 16 lifting seats. Loading and unloading of personnel and cargo was carried out through the door on the left side.
The prototype (with serial number 02D1 and onboard - "208") was manufactured at the experimental plant of the OKB in Lyubertsy in 1976, and on July 28, the first flight on it on L ID B in Ukhtomskaya was performed by the chief pilot of the Kamov design bureau, test pilot E.I. Laryushkin1). Soon it was joined by a second prototype (02D2) with the tail number "209".
After the end of factory tests in the spring of 1978, the first two Ka-252TB with numbers "208" and "209" in the spring of 1978 were transferred for testing to the 3rd department of the Air Force Research Institute.

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AKL-201507 AviaKollektsia 7 2015: Kamov Ka-29 transport and combat helicopter

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